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  Author  Subject: Re: Caldera Linux application installation

Posted on 07-22-2001 03:31 a.m. ET  reply

Original Poster: "Mark W. Krentel" <>

> 1. KDE 2 is included in the caldera package and loads at bootup, is
> KDE a shell for XFree86?

No, KDE (the K Desktop Environment) is a window manager, not a shell.
X is both the driver for your video card (the server) and the protocol
by which programs talk to the server. A window manager coordinates
the arrangement of the other X programs (clients) and provides the
look and feel of your desktop. There are many window managers: Gnome,
KDE, fvwm, twm, etc.

> if so should all X applications found on the internet work on KDE?

Gee, any program anywhere in the world written by anyone guaranteed to
work with KDE? Uhmm, maybe not. But in general yes, window managers
are supposed to work with any X program. I'm sure some newer WMs just
can't resist adding new features that not all X programs know about,
but usually that's not a big deal. So, in general, yes.

> 2. What is the difference between X and K applications (I have seend a
> lot of downloadable X11 apps that when names start with an x and a k,
> what is the difference if any?)

An X application is a program that talks to the X server, that is,
creates its own window(s). A K application is an X application that
is tuned for KDE.

> 3. How does linux remember paths, how can the path be viewed and edited?

Your path is simply the variable PATH. You can run "echo $PATH" in an
xterm to see what it's set to. Normally, for the bash shell, you set
PATH in your .bashrc file. Of course, if you change your .bashrc
file, your need to resource it (with ". ~/.bashrc") in each xterm for
it to see the change.

> 4. What are shells, I think my x terminal is running the bash shell
> because that's what the error messages say, but what is the difference
> between shells?, do certain applications work in some shells and some
> in others or are all shells designed to do the same? how can I switch
> between shells or install other shells if necesary?

A shell is a command interpreter, or maybe command launcher would be
more descriptive. All shells gives you a prompt, wait for you to type
a command, run it, and give you another prompt.

Bash (the Bourne-Again Shell) is the default shell in Linux, so that's
probably what you're running. Bash, tcsh and ksh are all good
interactive shells (I use bash). You can run any program from any
shell, but the syntax for setting environment variables varies. Don't
worry about other shells, stick with bash for now.

Which shell you use is set in /etc/passwd.

> 5. if KDE is a part of XFree86 how do I change the setting to use
> other XFRee86 shells (is shell the right word for this?)?

You probably mean window manager. Normally, the .xinitrc file in your
home directory is a shell script for starting your X desktop.
Somewhere in it, it should start KDE. To change your WM, you would
replace kde with the other WM and restart X. But be careful, if you
mess up .xinitrc, X may not start and maybe you can't login to fix it.
This is why I never have Linux boot directly into X.

> 6. as my first projects to learn a little linux I have set out to get
> xpacman and xdoom to work (not realizing these aren't easy tasks)

I'm sure a Google search would turn up pre-compiled binaries for
these. That would be an easier solution, although less instructive.

> the first thing when I tried the doom installation instructions is
> that it didn't say to add "./" in front of the xdoom or sdoom command,
> what is the "./"?

"./foo" means to run the command "foo" in the current directory.
Normally, "." is not in your path (that would be a security hole, so
don't put "." in your path). So, you have to use "./foo" for the
shell to find "foo".

> when I try to configure packman it game me the following error message
> after a lot of the compiling was done "checking for kde libraries
> installed... configure: error: your system fails at linking a small
> KDE application! Check, if your compiler is installed correctly and
> if you have used the same compiler to compile qt and kdelibs as you
> did use now", this goes back to my paths question earlier

It looks like you're missing a KDE or QT development package. I don't
use Caldera, but in Red Hat, there are packages and -devel packages.
The plain package is enough to run a program, and the -devel packages
contain the libraries and header files necessary to compile new
programs. I don't think it's a path problem.

> 7. As far as installing applications, is compiling your own
> applications the usual standard for linux distribution?

Usually not. There are many ftp sites with pre-compiled binaries for
almost anything. You certainly can compile your own, if you know what
you're doing, but most people don't.

> Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer in Windows NT version 4.0, and
> Novell Certified Administrator in 3.x and 4.x enviroments

I'll apologize in advance for this, but I've heard that a Microsoft
Certified Engineer is to computing what a McDonalds Certified Chef is
to cuisine. No offense, I'm just not impressed with Microsoft or their


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